Click on the links below to view a PDF version of past issues of the Lakes Winnipesaukee Watershed Association email newsletter:
As a non-profit, the Lake Winnipesaukee Association relies on funding from individuals and organizations.
Donations from individuals, families, and organizations are always welcome. Cash, materials, stocks, and planned giving are all welcome and appreciated.
Company sponsorship opportunities are also available. We accept sponsors for our programs, various events or donations from organizations. Recognition will be provided at the sponsored events and will be listed on the “Our Sponsors and Supporters” page under the “About” section of the web site.
For information about Underwriter Benefits, to make a donation, sponsor a program or event, or to discuss other options for supporting the LWA, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or call us at 603-581-6632.
You can also click on the PayPal Donate button found in the right hand column.
We truly appreciate and thank you for your support!
These presentations were give March 29, 2013 at the Meredith Community Center
Hosted by: Lakes Region Planning Commission, the Lake Winnipesaukee Association, and the Belknap County Conservation District
Funding for the workshop was provided by an EPA 604(b) grant awarded through NH DES to the Lakes Region Planning Commission.
Click on a presentation name below to view the presentation as a PDF file
Presentation 1. Introduction to Stormwater Management
Julie LaBranche, Rockingham Planning Commission
Presentation 2. Regulatory Requirements – Alteration of Terrain Permitting
Ridgely Mauck, NH Department of Environmental Services
Presentation 3. Stormwater Management Tools – Ideas and Innovative Techniques
Tom Ballestero, UNH Stormwater Center
Presentation 4. Evolving Concepts in Stormwater Management
Bill Arcieri, VHB, Inc.
Presentation 5. Stormwater Treatment Projects in Laconia
Luke Powell, Asst. Director Public Works, City of Laconia
The Lake Winnipesaukee Association (LWA) assists the UNH Cooperative Extension’s Lakes Lay Monitoring Program (UNH LLMP) on Lake Winnipesaukee. There are approximately 25 volunteer water quality monitors trained in taking water samples and in carrying out various water quality tests at over 30 sampling sites on the lake. The information and samples from these monitors are collected and further analyzed at the UNH laboratory, producing a meaningful set of data from year to year. The data may be used to detect early warning signals of potential problems. The state also takes water quality tests on the lake, but only every 10 years, making our efforts very important in creating a complete water quality database. Volunteer Today!
LWA became involved with water quality monitoring on the lake in 1982 and continues to play an important role in the coordination and expansion of monitoring taking place from just after ice-out into the early fall every year. LWA assists with recruiting and training volunteer water quality monitors, coordinating the movement of water samples from volunteers to the lab, and seeking out sponsors to fund the monitoring going on throughout the lake. We also focus on public outreach – promoting the program and publicizing the data and results.
You can access current maps of the sampling locations and water quality data online at www.winnipesaukeegateway.org
Lake Aging (Eutrophication)
Excerpt from “Understanding Lake Aging” by Robert Craycraft, Educational Program Coordinator (UNH LLMP), and Jeff Schloss, UNH Cooperative Extension Water Resources Specialist.
The process by which lakes age and progress from clear, pristine lakes to green, nutrient enriched lakes is known as eutrophication. This is a natural occurrence and can take thousands of years. Some lakes age at a faster rate than others due to natural attributes, such as watershed area relative to lake area, slope of the land surrounding the lake, soil type, mean lake depth, etc. Lakes are also influenced in their rate of plant growth (aging) through human activities (cultural eutrophication). Chemicals used to fertilize our lawns are nutrients, which if they enter our lakes stimulate plant growth and culminate in greener (and less clear) waters. Clearing large tracts of forested lands for development culminate in increased susceptibility of lakes to sediment and nutrient loadings. The aging process can be speeded up in tens of years rather than the natural transitional period of thousands of years. Lakes are often categorized into trophic states, meaning the level of lake plant and algae productivity or “greenness”. The three trophic states that lakes are generally categorized into are oligotrophic (pristine), mesotrophic (transitional), and eutrophic (enriched). Some of the commonly used parameters to measure the trophic state or age of a lake are chlorophyll a, water transparency, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, and macroscopic plant or weed abundance.Oligotrophic lakes are considered “unproductive” pristine systems and are characterized by high water clarities, low nutrient concentrations, low algae concentrations, minimal levels of aquatic plant “weed” growth, and high dissolved oxygen levels near the lake bottom. Eutrophic lakes are considered “highly productive” enriched systems characterized by low water transparencies, high nutrient concentrations, high algae concentrations, large stands of aquatic plants, and very low dissolved oxygen concentrations near lake bottom. Mesotrophic lakes have qualities between those of the two mentioned above, with moderate water transparencies, nutrient concentrations, algae growth, and dissolved oxygen concentrations.
The work that the volunteer water quality monitors undertake each season is extremely important in measuring the parameters, and providing data to UNH Cooperative Extension for long term trend analysis of the water quality of our lakes.
Lake Winnipesaukee usually freezes in January to a depth of 3 to 4 feet.
- It is a 63 mile drive around Lake Winnipesaukee.
- There are 365 islands in Lake Winnipesaukee; 274 of which are habitable.
- Becky’s Garden is the smallest island on Lake Winnipesaukee having a 10 foot width on a good day.
- Loon is the name of three different islands on Lake Winnipesaukee.
- “Winnipiseogee” is the Native American name for Lake Winnipesaukee, which was the most common named used by the earliest New Hampshire English settlers. The most popular translation of the name is “Smile of the Great Spirit”.
- The Lady of the Lake was constructed in Lakeport in 1849 and was the first boat built over 100 feet in length that provided mass transport on the lake.
- The 780 ton MS Mount Washington, was assembled in 1939 from the 230-foot hull of the Lake Champlain Vessel Chateaugay. The Mount stops at Wolfeboro, Alton Bay, Weirs Beach, Meredith, and Center Harbor, from ice-out in spring until October 21st.
- The islanders on Lake Winnipesaukee don’t have to come to the mainland to pick up their mail. The MS Mount Washington’s sister ship, the Sophie C, delivers mail to all inhabited islands.
- The official Ice-Out on Lake Winnipesaukee is judged by when the MS Mt. Washington can successfully navigate its route.
- Wolfeboro is the oldest summer resort town in the U.S.
Water Quality Facts
- The water quality in Lake Winnipesaukee is considered fairly good, but poorer conditions do occur in localized sites.
- Lake Winnipesaukee is considered an oligotrophic lake meaning the lake has high water clarity, limited plant growth, and relatively low nutrient inputs.
- The parameters used to measure a lake’s trophic state are chlorophyll a, water transparency, and total phosphorus.
- Phosphorus stimulates plant growth and contributes significantly to eutrophication, when the lake turns green due to algae growth. Water transparency measures water clarity, which is affected by algae growth in response to increases of phosphorus input.
- The water in the lake’s numerous coves and bays does not readily mix with the rest of the lake, causing the water in these areas to be more susceptible to water quality problems.
- Otter, beaver, muskrat, mink, fisher, moose, deer, black bear, coyotes, and bobcats all can be seen in the Lakes Region.
- The Lakes Region has one of the last known colonies of purple martins in the state, which nest in boxes provided by local residents.
- Male loons return to their traditional nesting territory in the Lakes Region on the day of ice-out and are joined by a female.
- Rainbow trout were introduced to Lake Winnipesaukee in 1990 and small mouth bass were introduced in 1860.
Lake Winnipesaukee Watershed Stats
|Total Watershed Area||
|Other Lakes, Ponds, Rivers||
|Total Surface Water||
|Forested Land (88.5%)||
|Cleared Land (8.3%)||
|Total Land Area||
72 sq. miles
625 billion gallons
|# of Habitable Islands||
|Length of Shoreline||
534 cu. ft/second
- A watershed may be defined as the land area contributing water to a body of water or watercourse. The Lake Winnipesaukee Watershed covers 381 square miles.
- A watershed is defined by topography. All water that falls onto a watershed flows to a common point, the lowest point, which could be a stream, river, lake, or pond. Sixteen (16) towns, eight of which have lake frontage, contain land within the watershed that contribute water to Lake Winnipesaukee.
- Smaller watersheds draining only a few acres into a pond, may be part of a much larger watershed draining into a nearby river or lake. For example, Lake Waukewan in Meredith and Lake Wentworth in Wolfeboro are both part of the Winnipesaukee Watershed.
- The Lakes Region consists of over 273 lakes and ponds.
LWA is a non-profit organization that is supported by memberships, donations, and grants. Your membership in LWA provides the foundation of our work and supports water quality monitoring, lake management, lake protection projects, and our lakeside learning activities throughout the year.
Caring for the lake is the responsibility of everyone. Our vision for an active and informed community partnership of residents, business, government and visitors acting as stewards of the lake begins with you!
Becoming a member is easy. Just click here, complete the form and either send a check in the mail payable to LWA or use the Donate button below to pay now. Checks may be mailed to:
LWA, P.O. Box 1624, Meredith, NH 03253
Thank you for your support!
- $50 Individual/Family/Winni Friend
- $75 Club/Association/Non-profit
- $100 Business/Winni Watcher
- $250 Winni Steward
- $500 Winni Protector
- $1,000 Winni Guardian
All gifts are tax-deductible under applicable IRS regulations.
Membership lists are not sold. Association memberships do not confer individual memberships.
Effluent from failing septic systems is a major water quality concern in the Lake Winnipesaukee watershed, as the majority of properties around Lake Winnipesaukee rely on onsite wastewater disposal systems (septic systems). Compounding the issue is the fact that many properties are seasonal, second homes or rental properties. Many property owners may not know that they have a septic system, where it’s located or when it was installed.
To help people better understand the functioning of septic systems and how to care and maintain this critical component of their home, LWA has sponsored several Septic Sense Seminars around the Winnipesaukee watershed; thank you to Wolfeboro Community TV for filming one of the seminars.
You can access the video of the Septic Sense program via You Tube at the following links:
Proper Use and Maintenance of Septic Systems
Everything that goes down the drain, toilet, dishwasher, bathtub, and/or washing machine goes to some type of waste water disposal system; usually it’s either a private septic system or a municipal sewer system.
If a home is on a private system, that system needs to be maintained in order to function properly. Why?
The septic system is a two-part sewage treatment and disposal system buried in the ground, composed of a septic tank and a leaching system. The sewage generally flows by gravity; first into the septic tank where the larger particles are removed and some decomposition takes place and then into the leaching system where it soaks into the ground.
The effluent that enters the leach field contains bacteria (E. coli), nitrates, phosphorus, and other chemicals; remember – whatever you put down your drain or toilet ends up in your septic system!
The leachate or effluent from your septic system eventually filters through the soil and becomes groundwater. If your system was located and installed properly and is maintained, this arrangement works to naturally filter out the pollutants. However, inadequately functioning and/or failing septic systems contribute to groundwater contamination. Waste water from septic systems may include many types of contaminants, such as nitrates, harmful bacteria and viruses.
Protect Your Septic System
1. Regularly inspect your system and pump your tank as necessary.
2. Don’t dispose of grease, coffee grounds, diapers, cat litter, latex paint, feminine hygiene products, household hazardous wastes, etc. in sinks or toilets. These items can clog the distribution lines or impair the function of the tank.
3. Minimize or eliminate use of sink disposal units which place an added burden on your system.
4. Care for your leach field (drainfield). Avoid driving or parking vehicles on it. Plant only grass over or near the leach field to avoid damage by roots.
5. Avoid use of water softeners; the salts which discharge during backwash into a septic system can crystallize and clog the distribution lines.
For More Information on how Septic Systems Function visit these websites:
For information on Septic System Designers, Installers, and Evaluators visit the
Granite State Designers & Installers Association website.
For information regarding your septic system, visit your Town Hall and review the property records, or contact/visit NHDES Subsurface Systems Bureau website.
For Information on Contaminants in Drinking Water, visit the NH Dept. of environmental Services website: http://des.nh.gov/organization/commissioner/pip/factsheets/dwgb/index.htm
Factsheets ”Water Quality Testing for Private Wells: http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/water/dwgb/well_testing/documents/well_testing.pdf
Moultonborough Bay and Winter Harbor Watershed Management Plan Development – Request for Qualifications due January 31, 2018.
The LWA is seeking qualifications from environmental consultants to assist the organization in development of a watershed management plan for the Moultonborough Bay and Winter Harbor subwatersheds of Lake Winnipesaukee.
You may upload your RFQ via this link.
Moultonborough Bay Inlet Watershed Restoration Plan
On December 11, 2017, the Lake Winnipesaukee Association, in partnership with FB Environmental Associates of Portland, Maine, presented a plan to address the water quality impairments in Moultonborough Bay Inlet at a public meeting held at the Moultonborough Public Safety Building.
Moultonborough Bay Inlet, the northernmost area of Lake Winnipesaukee, has historically exhibited excessive levels of the nutrient, phosphorus, poor water clarity, low dissolved oxygen, and extensive milfoil growth. The Moultonborough community has invested considerable resources over the past five years to address milfoil and lake quality. The Watershed Restoration Plan identifies sources of pollutants within the watershed that have led to the impairments and results in an action plan to assist the community in guiding their efforts to improve water quality. The presentation can be viewed here.
Lake Waukewan – Lake Winona Watershed Restoration Plan
Prepared by the Lake Winnipesaukee Association and FB Environmental Associates of Portsmouth, NH, the plan is the successor to the 2005 Waukewan Watershed Management Plan, and part of LWA’s lake-wide approach to preserving and enhancing the water quality of Lake Winnipesaukee.
Watershed residents, landowners, business owners, and recreationalists alike have a vested interest in protecting the long-term water quality of Lake Waukewan and Lake Winona for future generations. The goal of the plan is to improve the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the bottom depths by reducing the amount of pollutants, sediments, and nutrients that enter the lakes. The lake study advisory committee chose to reduce the median in-lake phosphorus concentrations by 10% and 5-10% in Lake Waukewan and Lake Winona, respectively, over the next 10 years. This goal can be reached if management actions discussed in the plan are implemented accordingly. Implementation of this plan over the next 10 years is expected to cost $324,200, and will require the dedication and hard work of municipalities, conservation groups, and volunteers to ensure that the actions identified in this plan are carried out accordingly.
This plan was partially funded by a Watershed Assistance Grant for High Quality Waters from NHDES using Clean Water Act Section 319 funds from the USEPA, with additional financial and in-kind services provided by the Waukewan Watershed Advisory Committee, the Windy Waters Conservancy, and the members of the Lake Study Advisory Committee.
The plan can be accessed on line at the Winnipesaukee Gateway website.
- Septic System Improvement Initiative
Improperly functioning septic systems can present a public health risk and degrade a lake’s water quality, particularly when these systems are located near the shoreline. Poorly functioning septic systems can release excessive amounts of nutrients, pathogenic organisms, and pharmaceuticals into a water body. At the same time, it can be difficult to identify problem systems and enforce rules on the local level to repair, upgrade, or replace those systems, largely because of the cost to property owners. Despite these challenges, the town of Meredith and the Lake Winnipesaukee Association (LWA) implemented programs to identify and help homeowners fix failing septic systems near Lake Waukewan, which is Meredith’s public water supply and a regional recreational resource.
In January 2013, the town of Meredith adopted a health regulation that requires evaluation of all septic systems within 250 feet of Lake Waukewan. Also in 2013, The NH DES awarded LWA a grant through the Source Water Protection Program to provide cost sharing incentives to reimburse property owners half the cost of a professional evaluation of their septic systems.
Compliance with Meredith’s health regulation was likely enhanced by LWA’s cost share evaluation program. Sixteen property owners voluntarily participated in the cost share program which was open to New Hampton, Center Harbor, and Meredith residents. Seven septic systems were found to be in failure (44%), and nine passed (56%). In addition, eight Meredith properties had their septic system evaluations done outside of the program; half of which were found to be either in failure or passing with intermittent use only.
For those properties whose septic systems were found to be in failure, LWA offered a second cost-share program toward the installation of new systems. As of the completion date of the grant project, December 31, 2015, fourteen septic systems were upgraded and replaced, resulting in a reduction of 5.3 kg of phosphorus to Lake Waukewan, in addition to a reduction in other pollutants, such as bacteria, nitrates, and pharmaceuticals. Of the 14 new systems installed, LWA provided cost share grants in the amount of $4000 to 9 property owners toward the overall cost.
We are pleased to have been able to offer these much needed cost-share programs to help property owners offset the financial burdens associated with septic system replacements.
Anything you throw into a river, stream, or even a storm drain is going to end up in the lake. Those tiny cigarette butts are litter too. Dispose of garbage properly and, yes you are going to hear it again, “Reduce! Reuse! Recycle!” and the fourth ‘R’ – Repair! Start the New Year off making a greater effort to reduce your trash output and increase your recycling. Save yourself time and set up a few containers in your garage to sort recycling. You may want to sort your recycling as you go along or maybe it is easier to keep a smaller container under your sink and throw all recyclables in it until it is full and then sort it in the garage or wherever you choose to place your sorting center. It’s easy. It’s simple. It’s stupid not to do it. For more information on what can be recycled and how to recycle anything from cell phones to used greeting cards go to www.obviously.com/recycle/.
Don’t be the stink of the neighborhood! Make sure your septic system is not leaking or overflowing by having the system inspected every three to five years and pumped whenever necessary (a recommended 2-3 years for permanent residents and 5-6 years for seasonal residents). If you do not take care of your tank properly, settled solids might wash into and clog your leach field as well as contaminate groundwater. Not only yucky but also very expensive to fix!
Time for spring-cleaning! Buy eco-friendly cleaners such as Seventh Generation/Harmony, Ecos, Earth Rite, Ecover, and Life Tree. Dispose of any hazardous household chemicals properly, not down sewer or storm drains. By reducing the amount of chemicals going into your septic system, your system will stay balanced and avoid the risk of groundwater contamination that may poison your well water and the lake. Storm drains run directly into the lake so it is important not to “pour” oil or any other hazardous chemicals into the drain. In the Lakes Region, Household Hazardous Waste Day is held on the last Saturday in July. For more information on where and when to dispose of your hazardous waste, contact your local town office or the Lakes Region Planning Commission (603-279-8171).
Celebrate Earth Day! Plant trees, shrubs, and flowers on shorefront property (vegetative buffers) as well as on other exposed areas near drainage systems. Vegetative buffers help remove sediments and other nutrients from runoff before entering the lake. Runoff traveling down driveways and camp roads directly into the lake may be diverted through the woods or into a vegetated buffer. For examples of species that work well as vegetative buffers in New Hampshire environments, refer to the UNH Cooperative Extension’s “Landscaping at the Water’s Edge” publication or the “The Best Plants for New Hampshire Gardens or Landscapes”, both available through UNH Cooperative Extension. Belknap and Carroll County Conservation Districts hold an annual tree & shrub sale in April (ordering deadline is usually in Feb/Mar) which offer a large variety of native plants to choose from. Call BCCD at (603)527-5880 or CCCD at (603)447-2771 for details.
It’s time to build little Johnny that float you told him he could swim to once he was old enough. Construct docks and floats with environmentally friendly materials. Pressure treated and painted wood have chemicals proven to be harmful to living organisms. Cedar, redwood, cypress, recycled wood/plastic, and aluminum are all safe materials to use for dock and float construction.
Quack! Quack! You may be tempted to throw those cute waddling ducks a cracker, but think twice before you do. There is plenty of natural food for the ducks to feed on. Feeding them anything not naturally occurring in the watershed will put unnecessary amounts of nutrients (duck poop) in the lake. The excess nutrients (duck poop) act as excess fertilizer, which can result in algae blooms, not to mention increasing the chances of getting duck itch.
Are your neighbors not talking to you because they are utterly disgusted at the fact your lawn is brown? Well good for you! Grass is supposed to turn brown over those hot dry periods. Don’t worry, your grass isn’t dead; it’s just dormant. The grass is taking a nap and will turn green once again when the conditions are right.
If you are using fertilizer, do not try dumping more and more fertilizer on your lawn to turn it green. Most likely there is more than one reason for your lawn not being healthy. Have your soil tested by the UNH Soils Analytical Laboratory to find out how much fertilizer and what type you really need (for more information contact the UNH Cooperative Extension nearest you). If you don’t test your soil, try adding some lime to the lawn to counteract acidity and allow the nutrients present to be absorbed by the grass. A few other tips for keeping your lawn healthy are:
Aerate the soil with an aerating machine.
Leave grass clippings on your lawn to act as a natural fertilizer and irrigate your lawn.
Keep grass long (at least 2 inches) to promote deeper roots and shade to discourage weeds.
Make sure your lawn mower blade is sharp (if the tips of the grass are jagged after mowing, you need a sharper blade).
Going on vacation to enjoy the last few weeks of the summer sun? Bringing your boat with you? Don’t forget to make sure you are not transporting any nuisance species such as milfoil into our lake or into any other lake. Inspect your boat and trailer, particularly on the rollers of the trailer and on the boat motor. Put any plant material or anything else you find in a trash bag and dispose of properly. It is also recommended to wash your boat with very hot water away from the lake, flush the motor, and let it dry for two days before launching it into another body of water.
Don’t do it in the lake! Using soap or phosphorus containing detergents to bathe, wash boats, or anything else for that matter may cause algae blooms by increasing phosphorus levels in the lake. Wash your car and boat over grass instead of paved driveways or concrete. The grass and soil will help filter out the phosphorus instead of allowing it to run directly into the lake. And whether in the city or the country, cleaning up after “Benji” is a must so that we don’t end up swimming in his manure.
Wouldn’t it be so easy to just rake the leaves from the yard right into the stream behind our house? No mess, right? Wrong! Vegetative material will add phosphorus and other nutrients directly into the lake as well as create excellent habitat for leeches at your personal swimming area. Keep leaf piles and brush piles at least 250 feet from the shoreline or 50 feet from any other drainage. Never dump leaf or brush piles into the lake or any other drainage area such as a stream, river, or storm drain.
Be like the pilgrims and serve a free-range turkey for Thanksgiving. It’s better for you and it’s better for the turkey. Gobble! Gobble! Be thankful for the lake; join LWWA and support our efforts in protecting the lake and surrounding watershed.
Are you tempted to buy one of those tacky frosty white artificial Christmas trees just like you had growing up? You may think an artificial tree is eco-friendly because you will use it year after year, but studies show that most people get rid of their fake trees after 6 years where they end up in a landfill. Artificial trees are also made with petroleum-based products, nonrenewable resources, which produce pollution during collection and synthesis of the products. Buy a real Christmas tree grown on a tree farm where the trees benefit wildlife habitat, stabilize soil, buffer water supplies, provide oxygen, and spread holiday cheer. For more information on Christmas trees go to www.realchristmastrees.org.
Lake Winnipesaukee Association
P.O. Box 1624
Meredith, NH 03253
Office location: Lakeshore Landing, 1934 Lake Shore Road, Unit 206, Gilford, NH
Phone: (603) 581-6632
President: Diane Hanley, Gilford
1st Vice President: Steve Wingate, Tuftonboro
Secretary: Rick DeMark, Meredith
Treasurer: Tim Baker, Center Harbor
Board of Directors:
Larry Greeley, Gilford
Peter Glick, Tuftonboro
Associate Director: Steve Preston, Meredith
Attention: Civic Groups, Schools, Real Estate Agencies, Lake Associations, etc…
Schedule a speaker for your next event or annual meeting
LWA will be happy to coordinate a professional speaker for your next meeting. Speakers will talk about lake issues and watershed issues that are important to your group. Please contact email@example.com for more information.
The Lake Winnipesaukee Association (LWA) is a non-profit organization interested in preserving and protecting the natural resources of Lake Winnipesaukee and its watershed. The organization is comprised of staff and volunteer board members who are concerned citizens and professionals living and working in the watershed.
Our mission: “Working to protect the water quality and natural resources of Lake Winnipesaukee and its watershed now and for future generations.”
Since the Lake Winnipesaukee Association’s inception in the 1970’s, our nonprofit volunteer organization has been dedicated to serving area communities around the lake. We have worked to maintain and enhance our natural resources through education, technical assistance and community partnerships in the Lake Winnipesaukee watershed.
Ongoing activities include:
- Development and implementation of the Lake Winnipesaukee Watershed Management Plan
- Coordination of water quality monitoring and assistance to the UNH Lakes Lay Monitoring Program on Lake Winnipesaukee.
- Educational outreach through our Lakeside Learning Programs and events.
- Continued development and enhancement of the award winning ‘Winnipesaukee Gateway’ website
- Partnership building efforts providing opportunities to work with people having similar interests on projects to insure the continued enjoyment of all the lake’s offerings.
As a respected source of information and expertise, LWA concentrates on the specific problems of Lake Winnipesaukee. We promote active participation among groups and individuals to bridge economic, social, and environmental interests in the watershed. We join with other lake associations and organizations on issues of mutual concern to be effective on both a local and state-wide basis.